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Pamela Hoopes, MDLC

Pamela Hoopes is lead attorney for Minnesota Disability Law Center (MDLC). Pamela has started an ECT Work Group to explore new laws that would provide "additional safeguards" for people such as Ray.

Name: Pamela Hoopes, Minnesota Disability Law Center (MDLC)

City/State: Minneapolis, MN

MDLC is a federally-funded state-supervised "protection and advocacy" or "P & A" agency charged with protecting people like Ray Sandford. One of the most common responses responses by experienced advocates nationally when they hear about Ray Sandford's electroshock is, "What about the Minnesota P & A?"

Pamlea Hoopes is MDLC's head attorney.

MindFreedom has been in contact with MDLC and Ms. Hoopes since early November 2008 about Ray Sandford.

While Ms. Hoopes feels that confidentiality prevents her or her agency from speaking publicly directly on Ray Sandford, it is legal for Ms. Hoopes and her agency  to speak out about the general topic of involuntary outpatient electroshock as a policy issue.

MDLC has started an ECT Work Group to investigate the general topic of involuntary electroshock in Minnesota.

You may read about the work group here:

While MindFreedom is gratified MDLC has initiated a work group on this controversial topic, so far we have not heard any public positions from MDLC opposing the kind of abuse Ray Sandford is experiencing.

On 7 April 2009, Ms. Hoopes issued the following public statement on behalf of MDLC about involuntary electroshock:

As you know, the Minnesota Disability Law Center strongly supports self-determination and independence for people with disabilities. Forced ECT is a very serious event and should only be used in extreme circumstances with close adherence to both the form and substance of legal due process. Although Minnesota law now provides more due process protections than most states, we think that additional safeguards against misuse or abuse of ECT should be added. We have formed a work group to consider such changes.

To read about MDLC, see:

Public position on Ray Sandford's forced outpatient electroshock: Unknown.

Public position in general on outpatient involuntary electroshock over expressed wishes of subject: Has started work group to "explore possible policy and legislative changes to the use of ECT in Minnesota." Supports "additional safeguards."

IMPORTANT NOTE: MindFreedom and Ray endorse nonviolence principles. Even if an individual or agency opposes Ray's human rights, MindFreedom and Ray ask that any communication be civil.


You can be in touch with the ECT Work Group, and ask for a clear public position against involuntary outpatient commitment.

Contact information for MDLC:

Phone:  612-332-1441; 1-800-292-4150

Fax:  612-334-5755;   TDD: 612-332-4668


430 1st Avenue N., Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN  55401-1780


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Loren R. Mosher, MD

Loren (1933 - 2004) was a dissident psychiatrist who founded Soteria House, a commonsense alternative to the forced psychiatric drugging of the mental health system. Loren was a MindFreedom board member, and an ally to psychiatric survivor activists. (Photo by Tom Olin at an MFI international strategy conference at Highlander.)
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